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14 Species of Tree Frogs in Virginia (Pictures)

There are over 800 worldwide, around 16 in the U.S., and at least 14 different species of tree frogs in Virginia. Technically, living in trees isn’t what defines a tree frog. Real tree frogs have a specialized bone in their toes that is shaped like a claw and specialized toe pads that allow them to climb trees. Species that live at ground level have lost these toe pads.

With far east Virginia being part of the Coastal Plain, there is an abundance of reptiles, amphibians, and other wildlife in that portion of the state. As you read this article you’ll find that many of Virginia’s tree frogs are only found in the coastal plain areas of the state.

With all that being said, let’s have a look at Virginia’s tree frogs!

14 types of tree frogs in Virginia

The 14 Species of Tree Frogs in Virginia are:

  1. Gray tree frog
  2. Cope’s gray tree frog
  3. Northern cricket frog
  4. Southern cricket frog
  5. Spring peeper
  6. Upland chorus frog
  7. Brimley’s tree frog
  8. Little grass frog
  9. Green tree frog
  10. Mountain chorus tree frog
  11. Pine woods tree frog
  12. Barking tree frog
  13. Southern chorus frog
  14. Squirrel tree frog

1. Common gray tree frog

Common gray treefrog
Common gray tree frog | Image credit: Amphibianboss.com

Scientific name: Hyla versicolor

The Gray tree frog goes by many names including the Eastern gray tree frog, Northern gray tree frog, and Common gray tree frog. Their skin has a bumpy texture and often appears gray with bands of darker gray or brown on their back and legs.

However, they are capable of quickly changing their color to a wide range of hues from nearly white to green to so dark they look black. This helps them blend in with the bark they are sitting on. Under each hind leg, they have a bright yellow-orange coloring that is hard to see unless their leg is extended.

The gray tree frog looks identical to the Cope’s gray tree frog, however, they have twice as many chromosomes. They can also be distinguished by their call, which is slightly longer and slower than the Cope’s.

Gray tree frogs rarely come down out of the trees, except to breed. They lay 30-40 eggs in a mass attached to vegetation on the surface of water. They are only active at night and spend most of the daylight hours resting on tree branches or leaves.

The Gray tree frog is common throughout the state of Virginia.

2. Cope’s gray tree frog

cope’s gray tree frog perching
Cope’s gray tree frog | image by USFWS Mountain-Prairie via Flickr


Scientific name: Dryophytes chrysoscelis

The Cope’s gray tree frog is also common throughout Virginia.  They are also known as the southern tree frog, and in appearance, they are almost identical to the eastern gray tree frog. You can begin hearing the mating calls of this species around the same time as others, in April and May.

While these frogs are called tree frogs and spend the majority of their time in trees, mating and egg fertilization occur on the ground near water. The males climb up into the tree and make their mating calls high off the ground so the sound can travel and they have a better chance of finding a mate.

They are about the same size as eastern gray tree frogs, and are rarely seen on the ground. Cope’s tree frogs often live near swamps or marshes, but also in prairies, meadows, fields, and forested areas near bodies of water.

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3. Northern cricket frog

Northern cricket frog
Northern cricket frog | image by Judy Gallagher via Flickr | CC BY 2.0

Scientific name: Acris crepitans

Virginia is home to both the northern and southern cricket frog. They have long back legs, a pointed snout, and slightly warty skin. Their color can vary from green to brown and brownish red. They have a stripe (color varies) that extends between the tops of their eyes and a “Y” shaped stripe on their back. The northern variety has more webbing on their back toes and the dark stripe on their thigh has ragged edges.

Cricket frogs are active both day and night and like pond, marsh, stream, and river habitats where they will live in the vegetation along the shore. They lay single or small groups of eggs, and the tadpoles have a black tip on their tail. Northern cricket frogs will call from April to August.

Northern cricket frogs are found mainly in the eastern half of Virginia.

4. Southern cricket frog

Southern cricket frog
Southern cricket frog | image by Judy Gallagher via Flickr | CC BY 2.0

Scientific name: Acris gryllus

The Southern cricket frog looks mostly identical to the northern variety, but has less webbing on their back toes, slightly longer legs and clean cut thigh stripes. They live in the same habitat as the northern cricket frogs but call for a much longer period of the year between February and October.

Southern cricket frogs occur in extreme southeastern Virginia.

5. Spring peeper

Spring peeper on a leaf
Spring peeper on a leaf

Scientific name: Pseudacris crucifer

The peeper is a tiny frog with an “X” shape on its back. They are often tan or gray, but can sometimes appear more yellow or pink. These tiny tree frogs only grow to about an inch in length as adults, but they make up for their size with their big voices.

If you’re close to a male spring peeper, their sound can reach about 90 decibels, which is about as loud as a lawnmower. A rock concert is about 120 decibels for comparison. If you hear a chorus of spring peepers, even from a distance it’s still going to be in the 60-70 decibel range.

Adult spring peepers come out in the late afternoon and early evenings to feed on a variety of small insects and invertebrates. They begin breeding in the early spring and females will lay 750-1200 eggs submerged, attached to aquatic vegetation. The tadpoles will emerge in a week or two and turn into frogs within another 6-12 weeks.

The call of the spring peeper is most common in spring, but can be heard from November to April. They are much less likely to call during the summer, however they may if the conditions are just right.

The spring peeper can be found throughout all of Virginia.

6. Upland chorus frog

Upland chorus frog
Upland chorus frog | image by Northeast Coastal & Barrier Network via Flickr | CC BY-SA 2.0

Scientific name: Pseudacris feriarum

The Upland chorus frog can be found in the eastern and southern U.S. Human activity doesn’t seem to scare them much, and they will inhabit small neighborhood ponds, flooded fields or roadside ditches. They like a moist, vegetated habitat near water, but spend very little time in the water itself. You will likely only see and hear them when breeding, and their most active breeding season is November through March.

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Their skin can appear various shades of brown, with a dark brown stripe running along their side. Their throat and chest are often a light cream color. The repetitive call of these frogs is sometimes described as sounding like running a finger along the teeth of a plastic comb.

In Virginia the upland chorus frog is fairly widespread throughout the state.

7. Brimley’s chorus frog

Scientific name: Pseudacris brimleyi

This handsome little frog is named after Clement Samuel Brimley, a naturalist from the early 1900s that researched amphibians and worked for the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. It has a brown body with a prominent dark brown stripe down both sides that extends all the way to the snout. There are usually three pale stripes along its back.

Brimely’s chorus frog breeds in marshes, swamps, roadside ditches and floodplains. Their call can be heard between December and April, and is a short trill.

Brimely’s chorus frogs are found in the southeastern part of Virginia and then south into a few nearby states.

8. Little grass frog

Little grass frog
Little grass frog on a leaf | image by Morgan Freese via iNaturalist | CC BY 4.0

Scientific name: Pseudacris ocularis  

The Little grass frog is the smallest frog in North America. It is about the size of George Washington’s head on a quarter! Tiny but mighty, they can jump 20 times their body length! They have mostly smooth skin that can be tan, reddish brown, greenish or pinkish. No matter what color, they have a dark line that passes through their eye onto their side.

The Little grass frog likes moist but grassy habitats that are near ponds or wetlands. They can breed from January through September, but will call all year long. Their call is very high pitched and often sounds more like the chirping of an insect. In Virginia you will find them in the southeast. You may notice a trend of many of these species being at home in Southeast Virginia near the coast.

For photos of the Little grass frog, visit the University of Florida Department of Wildlife, Ecology & Conservation page here.

9. Green tree frog

Green tree frog perching
Green tree frog | image by amandil_eldamar via Flickr

Scientific name: Hyla cinerea

The Green tree frog has a slender, smooth body that’s bright to dark green or grayish. Their sides are usually marked with a white stripe with a crisp black border. Adults grow to a size of 1 to 2.5 inches in length. Most adults have a few orange or yellow spots on their backs. 

During the day they hide in shady areas or under vegetation surrounding water. At night they come out to catch flying insects. The green tree frog call, heard from April to September, is a nasal quoonk-quoonk repeated up to 75 times per minute. 

Green tree frogs are found mainly in far eastern Virginia but they have been expanding into central areas of the state.

10. Mountain chorus frog

Mountain chorus frog
Mountain chorus frog | image by iNaturalistvia Wikimedia Commons

Scientific name: Pseudacris brachyphona

Mountain chorus frogs are small but stocky and appear gray or brown with a dark stripe through each eye. They call between February and April with a raspy “wreenk” sound. Eggs are laid in small masses and attached to grasses, leaves and twigs in hillside streams, ditches and shallow ponds.

In Virginia, mountain chorus frogs are only found in the very western and southwestern areas of the state.

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11. Pine woods tree frog

Pine woods tree frog
Pine woods tree frog | image by Judy Gallagher via Flickr | CC BY 2.0

Scientific name: Hyla femoralis

The Pine woods tree frog usually has a distinctive facial mark that looks like a “bandit mask.” Their body is green, gray, tan, or brown with darker blotches and bands. They are around 1.5 inches in length as adults.

Their preferred habitat is pine forests, flatwoods and cypress swamps. While they may climb all the way up the tall trees, they come down to breed in roadside ditches and small pools and ponds. They call from March to October. The call has a rapid metallic, machine-like sound and is often compared to morse code.   

Pine woods tree frogs are found in the eastern third of Virginia.

12. Barking tree frog

Barking tree frog
Barking tree frog | image by Ashley Wahlberg (Tubbs) via Flickr | CC BY-ND 2.0

Scientific name: Hyla gratiosa

The Barking tree frog has a plump body and uniquely granular bumpy skin that’s gray, green, or brown. Its back has dark spots that fade and sometimes yellow flecks. Adults average 2.5 inches in length and grow up to 2.75 inches. While these tree frogs like to climb high trees, they also burrow under sand or soil.

Their call is a single “toonk” that is medium to deeper pitched. From a distance a group of these frogs often sounds like barking dogs. Most tree frogs sit on vegetation or the ground when they call, but the barking tree frog calls while floating on the water.

This is the largest tree frog in the state, and can only be found in a small area in eastern Virginia.

13. Southern chorus frog

Southern chorus frog
Southern chorus frog | image by Peter Paplanus via Flickr | CC BY 2.0

Scientific name: Pseudacris nigrita nigrita

The Southern chorus frog is small, bumpy, and grows up to 1.25 inches in length. Their color is tan, brown, or green-gray, and they have a pointed snout with a uniquely lighter bottom lip. There are three rows of dark spots on their back. 

These tree frogs live in pine flatwoods, forest wetlands, wet meadows and roadside ditches. Their call is a mechanical raspy trill that can be heard between January and March. 

In Virginia the southern chorus frog can be found in the southeastern part of the state along the coastal plain.  

14. Squirrel tree frog

Squirrel tree frog
Squirrel tree frog | image by Judy Gallagher via Flickr | CC BY 2.0

Scientific name: Hyla squirella  

Squirrel tree frogs can change their color quickly to green, gray, tan, or brown with splotches and smooth skin. They often have a band of yellow that extends around their snout and down their sides. Adults usually grow to a length of 1 or 1.5 inches.

These tree frogs can inhabit a wide variety of settings, including urban areas and backyards. They may be found at night around windows or street lights, feasting on the insects the light attracts. They call for breeding between April and August. However they have a second call described as a “squirrel like rasp” that they perform before rain storms. This is gained them the nickname of “rain frogs”.

In Virginia they can be found only in the extreme southeastern corner of the state.