There are an estimated 900 different species of ticks in the world, and only a handful of these bite humans and transmit diseases. In this article we look at 6 types of ticks in Texas that everyone should watch out for.
Ticks in Texas
All of the Texas ticks you’re about to see are capable of transmitting a disease to a human through a bite. Scroll to the bottom for some tips on preventing tick bites.
1. American dog tick
- Scientific name: Dermacentor variabilis
- Length: 5 mm (10 to 15 when engorged)
- Distribution: Most of California, eastern half of the U.S.
- Transmits: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Tularemia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, tick paralysis
The American Dog Tick gets its name due to its preference for feeding on domesticated dogs. However, it can also attach and feed on people as well.
The ticks are brown with white or gray markings. They have an oval-shaped body and are 5mm unengorged and 15mm engorged. The ticks are most active from May to November.
2. Black-legged tick
- Scientific name: Ixodes scapularis
- Length: 3 mm (6 or 7 when engorged)
- Distribution: Eastern half of U.S.
- Transmits: Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, B. miyamotoi disease, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, Powassan virus
The blacklegged tick, commonly referred to as the deer tick, is widespread throughout the Eastern half of the contiguous United States. They’re found in the eastern parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and Nebraska east to the coast, and then north from Florida into New England .
They live in wooded areas and can usually be found on a branch or plant of some type, waiting jump onto an animal. Blacklegged ticks commonly carry the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii, which causes lyme disease. Nymphs and adult females are most likely to bite humans in spring, summer, and fall.
3. Brown dog tick
- Scientific name: Rhipicephalus sanguineus
- Length: 3 mm (up to 13 when engorged)
- Distribution: Throughout United States, all 50 states
- Transmits: Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Brown dog ticks get their name from their brownish color and their preference for dogs. They can attach to humans but rarely do so. These ticks are about 3mm in size when un-engorged and 12mm when engorged.
They take on a gray-blue color when engorged. Brown dog ticks are one of the few species of ticks that can survive inside. That is why they can be dangerous when brought into a breeding facility or a home with multiple pets.
4. Gulf Coast tick
- Scientific name: Amblyomma maculatum
- Length: 6 mm (12+ when engorged)
- Distribution: Gulf coast states, a few inland southern states
- Transmits: rickettsiosis (a type of spotted fever)
The Gulf Coast tick is common throughout southern states in the U.S. that border the Atlantic or Gulf of Mexico. They can be found in southern Texas and near the Gulf Coast.
These ticks feed primarily on birds and mammals but will commonly bite humans when given the chance. They’re known for spreading a type of spotted fever, Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis, among other pathogens.
5. Lone star tick
- Scientific name: Amblyomma americanum
- Length: 3 mm (13 when engorged)
- Distribution: Widespread in eastern U.S. south of the Great Lakes
- Transmits: ehrlichiosis, Heartland virus, tularemia, STARI
The Lonestar tick gets its name from its unique coloring. Females have a brown scutum with a large white dot in the middle. The ticks are most active from late spring to early fall.
The ticks are known to be extremely aggressive, attaching to anything that comes in their path. They are able to survive without a host for up to a full year.
6. Groundhog tick
- Scientific name: Ixodes cookei
- Length: 3 mm
- Distribution: Eastern half of the U.S.
- Transmits: Powassan virus disease
While the woodchuck tick prefers wild animals, it will attach to domesticated animals and occasionally humans. When it is fully engorged, it is approximately the size of a sesame seed.
Woodchuck ticks, otherwise known as groundhog ticks, look extremely similar to deer ticks. A microscopic investigation may need to be completed in order to determine the species. Deer ticks carry Lyme disease, while woodchuck ticks do not.
How to Avoid Ticks in Texas
Now that you are aware of the most common ticks living in the United States, it’s vital to understand how to avoid getting bit. Here are some common tips to follow to avoid getting bitten by ticks:
- Wear long pants and tuck them into your socks.
- Wear bug spray with less than 30% DEET.
- Pre-treat clothing with a chemical repellant like permethrin
- Stay towards the center of trails
- Avoid tick-infested areas (i.e., high grass, off-trail trekking, etc.)
In addition to following the common practices above, you should also check yourself and your animals for ticks anytime you go to a place that may have been infested by ticks. Make sure to check the following areas on your own body:
- Pubic area
- Back of knees
Additionally, you should check your animals’ armpits and behind their ears very carefully. Finally, you should shower within two hours of coming indoors as this will help wash away any unattached ticks.
What Should I Do If I’m Bitten by a Tick?
If you find that you have been bitten by a tick, you should follow the following steps to remove it as quickly as possible:
- Use tweezers to get as close to your skin as possible
- Pull upward. Do not twist or jerk.
- Once the tick is removed, clean the area with rubbing alcohol or soap and water.
- Flush the tick down the toilet, or if you’d like to get it identified, pour rubbing alcohol on it and place it in a sealed bag.
It is essential to remove a tick as soon as it has been identified. This will help prevent the spread of any diseases. You will want to monitor yourself for up to 30 days for the following symptoms:
- Joint pain
- Muscle pain
If you experience any of the above symptoms, go see a doctor as soon as possible and make sure to mention the tick bite.
The Dangers Tick Pose
While tick bites can be uncomfortable and a little unnerving, the bite itself is not the main concern. Ticks are known vectors of several diseases that can be harmful to both humans and animals alike.
One of the most common diseases passed from tick to human is Lyme disease. If left untreated, Lyme disease can cause joint pain and even negatively impact your central nervous system. Regardless of where you are in the United States, it’s essential to be on the lookout for ticks and always see a doctor if experiencing symptoms after a tick bite.